The Tianshan glacier observation and experimental station of Chinese Academy of Sciences (abbreviated as Tianshan glacier station) is the longest field station in China which mainly observes and studies glaciers. The station is located in the basic observation and research of glaciers and glaciers. The research direction is the physical, chemical and biological processes, mechanisms and interactions of phenomena related to glaciers and glaciers, as well as their impact on social economy. It was founded in 1959 under the initiative and organization of the late well-known glaciologist academician Shi Yafeng. It entered the world glacier monitoring service (WGMs) in 1981. In 1988, it became the first batch of CAS stations to open to the outside world. In 1997, CAS was awarded a class a station in the evaluation of field stations, and was awarded the advanced group of field work. In 1999, it became the first batch of national key field pilot stations, and in 2006, it was certified as a national key station. In 2007, it was selected as the key station of special environment network of Chinese Academy of Sciences. After 50 years of construction, it has become a well-known glacier location observation, experiment and research base at home and abroad.
The Tianshan glacier station is divided into basic station, alpine station and Altai mountain glacier snow and environment observation and research station. The main reference glacier monitored by Tianshan glacier station is Glacier No. 1 at the headwaters of Urumqi River (referred to as Glacier No. 1; 43 ° 06 ′ n, 86 ° 49 ′ E), which is the longest monitored glacier and the most systematic glacier in China. As the only Chinese Glacier in the WGMs network, the glacier ranks among the top ten glaciers in the world, and is one of the few glaciers in the world that have been observed for more than 50 years.
For more than half a century, the observation and research of Tianshan glacier station around Glacier No.1 and the source area of Urumqi River have played an important role in the formation and evolution of mountain water resources in Northwest China and arid areas of Central Asia, and become a good reference and model for glacier research in other regions at home and abroad. The research results have played a key role in the development of Glaciology in China, and filled in many gaps in international Glaciology on continental glaciers.
The Tianshan glacier station has always been the center of glacier location observation and research at home and abroad as well as the talent training base, which enjoys a high reputation in the world. In the field of Glaciology in China, most of the older generation of glaciologists, as well as the young and middle-aged scholars who are active in the front line of scientific research, have worked and lived at the Tianshan glacier station. Many international glaciologists and scholars began to learn about Chinese Glaciology from Tianshan glacier station and Glacier No. 1.
Since 1998, the Tianshan glacier station began to expand its observation and research scope. Today, the monitoring range of glaciers has been extended to Tomur peak at the westernmost end and Harlik mountain at the easternmost end of Tianshan Mountain, spanning 1700 kilometers, forming a complete Tianshan glacier observation network. In 2011, a branch "Altai mountain glacier snow cover and environment observation and research station" was established in Kanas, Xinjiang, to improve China's cryosphere observation system. So far, the construction of the park of the first station and the third part of Tianshan glacier station has begun to take shape, and the multi-disciplinary observation contents related to the cryosphere are becoming more and more perfect.