The Taklamakan Desert Atmospheric Environment Observation and Experiment Station was established in 2003 by the Urumqi Institute of Desert Meteorology of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), and in 2018 it was selected as one of the first field scientific experiment bases of the CMA, named as the Taklamakan Desert Meteorological Field Scientific Experiment Base. The base is located in the Ta Zhong area in the hinterland of the Taklamakan Desert in Xinjiang, China, and is the only atmospheric environment observation and test base in the world that goes deeper than 200 km into the hinterland of the flowing desert. It is the ideal natural test site for the study of atmospheric boundary layer physical processes, desert atmospheric environment and desert land surface processes in flowing deserts. It is an ideal natural test site for the study of the physical processes of the mobile desert atmospheric boundary layer, desert atmospheric environment and desert land surface processes. The main observation system of the test site includes five types of stations, including a super station, a desert flux station, a regional weather station, a sandstorm monitoring station and an atmospheric composition monitoring station. The super station consists of an 80m high 10-layer gradient tower detection system, radiation detection system, vortex correlation detection system, tethered airship detection system, and wind profile radar detection system, which is used to observe the near stratigraphic structure of the Taklamakan Desert, water and heat flux exchange, surface radiation energy budget, boundary layer meteorological elements and vertical distribution of sand and dust concentration.