|Dam break model of breach earth rock dam
A large number of reservoir inflow with preserved data, spillway discharge and discharge of breach ditch (unstable flow with sediment transport capacity) formed along erosion are comprehensively applied in the model. It is assumed that the slope ratio at the bottom of the breach is basically the same as that at the downstream of the dam. The development of breach ditch depends on the material properties of dam body (D50 size, unit weight, friction angle, bond strength). The model takes into account the following possible complexities: 1) the material properties of the dam core and the outside of the dam are different; 2) before the real breach caused by overtopping flow is formed, the erosion ditch along the downstream slope surface of the dam is determined; 3) the downstream slope of the dam may be covered with grass or contain materials larger than the external components of the dam; 4) the shear strength and cohesive force are exceeded The results show that more than one sudden structural collapse mechanism is enlarged due to the hydrostatic pressure; 5) the width of the breach obtained from the slope stability theory is enlarged; 6) the free surface breach flow is developed by piping, which causes the collapse; and 7) the non cohesive material (gravel) or cohesive material (clay) may be carried away by erosion. The discharge water level hydrograph is obtained by time step iterative method, which can be completed in only a few seconds on a main computer. The model is not constrained by numerical stability and convergence stability.
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