WOFOST is a single site simulation system developed by Wageningen University in the Netherlands. A dynamic interpretative model based on process was developed to simulate crop growth process under the influence of climate and other environmental factors (such as soil water and fertilizer), such as photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, leaf area change, dry matter distribution and yield formation. The model can simulate crop growth process and crop yield under three conditions: sufficient water and fertilizer supply (potential growth condition), water limitation (rain fed condition) and nutrient limitation (insufficient supply of N, P, K).
Modular ocean model (MOM) is a standard global ocean circulation model used by many researchers in the world. The origin of this model can be traced back to the community code originally developed by Kirk Bryan and Mike Cox in the 1960s, and many other global ocean models can be traced back to their origins. In the early 1990s, Ron pacanowski, Keith Dixon, and Tony Rosati redesigned the old code into a more modern format, while Steve griffies led the development of mom since 2000. However, mom is really a community code, and many people, both in gfdl and around the world, have made fundamental contributions to its successful development over the years.
CROPWAT is a model developed by the food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 1991. It can help agrometeorologists, agronomists and irrigation engineers to calculate evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirements in a standard way. In addition, CROPWAT can suggest how to improve irrigation methods, plan irrigation schedules under different water supply conditions, and evaluate the impact on crop yields under rain sampling conditions or under sufficient irrigation conditions. The basic functions of CROPWAT include: (1) reference crop evapotranspiration (2) crop evapotranspiration (3) crop irrigation water requirement (4) formulation of irrigation schedule (5) evaluation of crop yield under rain fed or under sufficient irrigation conditions.
DSSAT is a software application program, which contains dynamic crop growth simulation models of more than 40 crops. DSSAT is supported by a range of utilities and applications, including weather, soil, genetic, crop management and observational experimental data, as well as sample datasets for all crop models. Crop simulation models simulate growth, development and yield as a function of soil plant atmosphere dynamics. DSSAT has been used in many applications, from genetic modeling to farms and precise management, to regional assessment of climate change and its impacts. DSSAT has been used for more than 30 years by researchers, educators, consultants, promoters, growers, private enterprises, policy and decision makers, and many people in more than 150 countries around the world.
Geosfm hydrological model is studied by the center for earth resources observation and Science (EROS) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Its biggest feature is that the satellite remote sensing precipitation products can be directly used as the driving parameters of the model. The geosfm hydrological model has been applied to the Nile River Basin in Africa, Mekong River in Asia and bagmati River Basin in Nepal. Geosfm can create a common visual environment to monitor hydrogeological conditions in a wide range of areas, including topographic analysis, data assimilation and time series processing, and display the monitoring results.
The ecological dynamics simulation (edys) model is a general ecosystem simulation model based on machinery. It simulates changes in hydrology, soil, plants, animals, and watershed parts by natural and human intervention. It is a dynamic model that simulates hourly (for aquatic) or daily changes, from months to centuries. Edys has been used by federal and state agencies for a variety of ecological assessments,
Chemical mass balance model (CMB model) is one of several receptor models applied to air pollution source management. CMB model was first proposed by Miller, Friedlander and hidy in 1972, and formally named as chemical mass balance method by Cooper and Watson in 1980. It is an important method recommended by EPA to study the sources and contributions of PM10, PM2.5 and VOC.. The CMB model established by this method is the most studied and widely used receptor model in the practical work of source apportionment of atmospheric particulates. Chemical mass balance (CMB) model epa-cmbv8.2 is one of several receptor models applied to air quality problems in the past 20 years. Based on the least squares method of effective variance (EVLS), EPA supports CMB as a regulatory planning tool by approving a large number of state implementation plans (SIPS). CMB needs potential sources of analytical samples collected at a single receptor site and corresponding environmental data. CMB is an ideal tool for ideal local non reaching problems and has been proved to be a useful tool.