Biosphere 3D is an open source project aimed at interactive landscape rendering based on Virtual Earth. The software system supports multiple scales, but it is mainly used to create realistic views from the line of sight level or near ground level. The software is released under the license of MPL and developed by lennal 3D for personal computers. Biosphere 3D was first released in 2007 by the visualization and data analysis department of the Zuse Institute in Berlin. Applications include landscape planning, landscape architecture, visual impact assessment, such as wind farms, power stations, land-use planning, archaeology, urban planning and forestry, enabling them to roam through landscape scenes or nearly reconstructed historical landscapes and gardens. Biosphere 3D, originally funded by the Federal Ministry of education and Research (Germany), was designed as a pure landscape visualization system in the "silvisio" of the R & D project.
Integrated water flow model is a computer program used to simulate the flow of land surface, surface water and groundwater. It is a rewrite of IGSM software. Iwfm program and source code are provided free of charge. It uses finite element method to simulate groundwater flow. Surface water flow can be simulated by a simple one-dimensional flow network or by moving wave method. Allows users to run models for a specific period of time while editing input files. Iwfm simulates four land use categories: agriculture, urban, native vegetation and riparian vegetation. Land use area is divided into a time series with corresponding evapotranspiration rate and water management parameters. In the agricultural and urban land use categories, iwfm applies surface water and groundwater according to a specific ratio, and can selectively adjust surface water and groundwater to meet water demand.
Delft3D is a powerful software package developed by WL Delft hydraulics of Delft University in the Netherlands, which is mainly used in free surface water environment. The software has a flexible framework, which can simulate two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow, wave, water quality, ecology, sediment transport and bed topography, as well as the interaction among various processes. It is one of the most advanced hydrodynamic water quality models in the world. Delft3D system is widely used in the world, such as the Netherlands, Poland, Germany, Australia, the United States and so on, especially the United States has a long history of application. The Delft3D system has been used in Hong Kong since the mid-1970s and has become a standard product of the Hong Kong Environment Agency. Delft3D has been applied more and more in mainland China since the mid 80s, such as Changjiang Estuary, Hangzhou Bay, Bohai Bay, Taihu and Dianchi. Delft3D is the most advanced and complete 3D hydrodynamic water quality model system in the world, especially the unique support surface format.
At present, the plastic tarpaulin used in soil fumigation process has been proved to be able to penetrate into the fumigation steam and cause obvious loss to the atmosphere. New low permeability membranes are being developed to reduce fumigant emissions and improve efficacy. A fast, reliable and sensitive method is needed to measure the permeability of various membranes that may be used in new management practices. Filmpc provides a method for estimating the mass transfer coefficient (H) of fumigants in agricultural films. H is a measure of diffusion resistance. Unlike other permeability measurement methods, h is an attribute of film chemical combination, independent of the concentration gradient of the whole film. The model relies on a mass balance method, and adsorption and diffusion are carried out on the membrane. The results show that this method produces a sensitive and reproducible method for measuring membrane permeability.
PHREEQC is a computer software (Parkhurst and appelo, 1999) for the calculation of various low-temperature hydrogeochemical reactions. PHREEQC, based on the ion linked water model, can (1) calculate the species and saturation index of matter formation; (2) simulate geochemical inversion process; (3) calculate batch reaction and one-dimensional migration reaction. In addition, PHREEQC coupled with multi-component solute transport model can generate PHAST, a three-dimensional reaction transport simulator for simulating groundwater flow system. PHREEQC is also useful in the investigation of unpolluted and polluted environment, laboratory, field and regional investigation. PHREEQC can investigate various natural and human influenced environmental geochemical reactions, including acid mine water discharge, radioactive waste isolation, pollutant migration, nutrient enrichment, aquifer natural and artificial restoration, aquifer reserve recovery, drinking water treatment, indoor experiment and regional aquifer system. PHREEQC has two graphical user interfaces available. Phreeqcl is a screen driven interface that provides a descriptive explanation for each data item (Charlton and Parkhurst, 2002). PHREEQC used in windows is a row editing object interface. Its additional input features enable it to generate graphic simulation results (post, 2004).
Dhsvm is a distributed hydrological model developed at the University of Washington for more than a decade. It clearly indicates the influence of landscape topography and vegetation on water flux. In business, runoff prediction can be done, and in research, the impact of forest management on peak flow is studied.