The common land surface model was developed by scientists interested in land model for public use and further development. The main characteristics of the model include sufficient non-uniform interlayer to fully represent soil temperature and soil moisture, and multi-layer parameterization of snow process; clear treatment of liquid water and ice water quality in snow soil system; runoff parameterization under the concept of topmeod; a canopy photosynthetic conductivity model, which describes the simultaneous transfer of carbon dioxide and water vapor in plants; and a model of canopy photosynthesis conductivity; The sub grid fraction of energy and water balance is tiled. CLM has been widely evaluated in offline mode and coupled with the NCAR community climate model (CCM3).
Topoflow is a powerful and spatially distributed hydrological model with a user-friendly click interface. Its main purpose is to simulate many different physical processes in a watershed, and its goal is to accurately predict how various hydrological variables will evolve in response to climate forces.
Pihm is a physical model of land surface and groundwater, closely coupled to GIS interface. Pihmgis is open source, platform independent and extensible. Through the development of shared data model and hydrological model data structure, the close coupling between GIS and model is realized.
The bahm model is a tool to analyze the potential impacts of hydrological changes in land development projects and to grade structural solutions to mitigate the increased stormwater runoff in these projects. The software was developed in three counties in the San Francisco Bay Area: Alameda, San Mateo and Santa Clara.
SPARE:WATER It is a spatial decision support system for estimating water consumption of agricultural production system. It is a stand-alone software application that integrates a database for mathematical models and graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for estimating crop water requirements. The software realizes the function of GIS, which is used to manage spatial data based on open source spatial database.
Sicopolis model is a three-dimensional dynamic / thermodynamic model, which simulates the evolution of large ice sheet and ice sheet. It was originally created by Greve (1997A, b) in a version of the Greenland ice sheet. Since then, sicopolis models have been developed and applied to the past, present and future glaciers of polar ice caps in Greenland, Antarctica, the entire northern hemisphere, Mars and elsewhere.
Dyresm (reservoir dynamics simulation model) is a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model used to predict the vertical distribution of temperature, salinity and density in lakes and reservoirs. The one-dimensional approximation is effective when the forces (wind stress, surface temperature drop or entrainment flow) that destabilize the water body do not work for a long time.